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Included in the study were 100 children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years who had been diagnosed with AOM. From these patients, swabs for culture were obtained from the middle ear after paracentesis or perforation of the ear drum.
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An electronic search of eight databases from their earliest records through October 8, 2011 and a hand search of international dental journals for the last 15 years were conducted. Gain in clinical attachment level (CAL), reduction in probing depth (PD), secondary outcomes, and adverse events were analyzed. A random-effect model was used to pool the extracted data. The weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for continuous outcomes; heterogeneity was assessed with the Cochrane χ(2) and I(2) tests. The level of significance was set at P <0.05.
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An intragastric buoyant sustained-release tablet (IGB-T) containing 100 mg of amoxicillin (AMX) was prepared to eradicate gastric Helicobacter pylori. A tablet prepared by compressing the mixture of hydroxypropylcellulose-H (HPC-H), citric acid (17.2 mg), sodium hydrogen carbonate (22.8 mg) and AMX was employed as the basic system for preparing IGB-T. The weight and diameter of the tablets were designed to be about 300 mg and 10 mm, respectively. IGB-T containing 5 mg of AMX and HPC-H (255 mg) was buoyant and showed a sustained-release pattern in water. However, when AMX was increased and HPC-H decreased to maintain the tablet weight (300 mg), there was no apparent sustained-release pattern. To prepare IGB-T containing 50 mg of AMX, the surface of the tablet was coated with HPC-H after a tablet was prepared from the mixture of AMX (50 mg), HPC-H (210 mg), citric acid (17.2 mg), and sodium hydrogen carbonate (22.8 mg). This tablet (IGB-T50-Coating) was buoyant and showed a sustained-release pattern in water. However, to complete IGB-T with 100 mg of AMX, it was necessary not only to coat the surface of the tablet but also to use granulated AMX with a particle size of 300-500 microm (IGB-T100-Coating-300-500G). IGB-T100-Coating-300-500G was confirmed to be buoyant for 24 h while maintaining a tablet shape and showed a sustained-release pattern in water and buffer solutions of pH 1.2 and 6.8.
A total of 86 patients were divided into two groups: group A, receiving ferrous succinate combined with triple therapy for H pylori eradication, and group B (control), treated with ferrous succinate only. During treatment of IDA, dynamic changes in hemoglobin (Hb) level, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), serum iron (SI), and serum ferritin (SF) were compared between the groups.
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An association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia has been reported in children, and it has been proposed that H. pylori infection needs to be eradicated to treat absolutely iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We investigated whether there was any correlation between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency (ID) and IDA in children, and whether the eradication of H. pylori infection without iron treatment would lead to the resolution of ID. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels, H. pylori stool antigen test and (14)C urea breath test were measured in 140 children aged 6--16 years (median 9.5 years). Children with H. pylori infection were divided into three groups on the basis of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and serum ferritin levels: groups of IDA, ID, and control. All the children received anti-H. pylori combination therapy consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole. Hemoglobin and MCV values rose significantly compared with baseline values after H. pylori eradication without iron supplementation in children with IDA (p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). Ferritin values increased significantly after H. pylori eradication in children with ID (p<0.001). We conclude that complete recovery of ID and IDA can be achieved with H. pylori eradication without iron supplementation in children with H. pylori infection.
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We investigated the trend of the carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in nasopharynx of children. The 202 isolates from pediatric outpatients and their previous antibiotic use was investigated from 2004 to 2006. The total rate of patients medicated with antibiotics was 47.5%, a 6.9% decrease compared with our previous study performed from 2001 to 2003. There were 56 (27.7%) penicillin-susceptible, 83 (41.1%) penicillin-intermediate, and 63 (31.2%) penicillin-resistant strains by the susceptibility breakpoints used during the previous study period. There were 196 (97%) susceptible, 5 (2.5%) intermediate, and 1 (0.5%) resistant strains by breakpoints in this study, which were introduced in 2008 by the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute. The rate of strains with a single altered pbp gene was 21.8% (44), with 2 altered pbp genes was 21.8% (31), and with 3 altered pbp genes was 53.5% (108). The total rate of strains with altered pbp gene(s) was 90.1% (183). We found the emergence of strains with pbp1a and 2b and the higher rate of strains with pbp2x. There was obvious association between amoxicillin use and the carriage of altered pbp gene(s). These results might suggest that amoxicillin was not a safe alternative to prevent the emergence of resistant strains. We need to reassess a beneficial approach for the treatment of pediatric outpatients.
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Tigecycline was generally safe and effective in the treatment of cSSSIs.
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Among the 3994 study patients, the numbers of dispensed index prescriptions were 268 for amoxicillin/clavulanate, 1609 for azithromycin, 1460 for levofloxacin, and 657 for moxifloxacin. Unadjusted treatment failure rates for the sample were 20.8% for levofloxacin, 23.9% for amoxicillin/clavulanate, 23.9% for azithromycin, and 19.9% for moxifloxacin. For high-risk patients, unadjusted treatment failure rates were 19.1% for levofloxacin, 26.1% for amoxicillin/clavulanate, 26.3% for azithromycin, and 24.3% for moxifloxacin. Propensity score-matched treatment failure rates were significantly lower with levofloxacin than azithromycin (19.8% vs. 24.5%, odds ratio [OR] comparator vs. levofloxacin 1.38; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.67), a difference amplified in high-risk patients (19.0% vs. 26.4%, OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.13). No significant differences were observed for other paired comparisons.
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The Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is common. However, only 10-20% of infected individuals require antibacterial treatment. The main indications to such treatment are peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis, dyspeptic symptoms, previous surgical procedure for gastric cancer, family history of gastric cancer and low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The treatment may also be undertaken at the patient's request. To detect the infection the urease test (when the patient has indications for gastroscopy), the urea breath test or serologic test are most commonly used. A standard treatment of Hp infection consists of a 7-day administration of one of the proton pump inhibitors and 2 out of 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole. After failure of the first-line treatment, the recommended second choice treatment is a quadruple treatment regimen consisting of bismuth salts, tetracycline, metronidazole and proton pump inhibitor. European guidelines (Maastricht III) allow the use of the quadruple treatment regimen already as the first choice treatment and therapy prolongation up to 14 days. Ineffectiveness of the second-line treatment is an indication for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. New antibiotics used for Hp eradication are levofloxacin and rifabutin. Eradication treatment should be obligatorily assessed with the use of the urease or breath test only in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. The current guidelines do not envisage an active search for Hp infection in an asymptomatic population and treating people infected with this bacterium, for gastric cancer prevention.
Extended duration of amoxicillin treatment during the entire tetracycline containing sequential therapy period did not improve the H. pylori eradication rate. As a consequence, sequential therapy using 5-day amoxicillin is an acceptable first-line therapy option for the eradication of H. pylori in Turkey.