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Pharmacoepidemiological study was based on surveying pharmaceutical workers using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included 2 groups of questions: general questions aimed at identifying the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (gender, age) and professional status (level of qualification, work experience), as well as specific questions aimed at identifying perceptions and knowledge of respondents about the studied group of drugs (range of used drugs, the factors determining and limiting the choice of drug, properties of individual drugs, etc.). The study involved 182 pharmaceutical workers at the age of 20 to 52 years. When processing the received data, we used Microsoft Excel and BioStat, and methods of nonparametric statistics (χ2-test). The survey was conducted anonymously, informed consent of the participants was not required. According to the recommendations of Ethical Committee of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V.I. Razumovsky (protocol No. 8 from 01.04.2014) the study is consistent with the basics of medical ethics.
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We identified subjects who were prescribed any high-risk antibiotic, finding 3513 on a concomitant PPI and 6149 not taking a PPI. Of these subjects, 111 were diagnosed with CDI and met inclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics, CDI severity, length of hospitalization and antibiotic therapy prior to infection were similar in both groups. The incidence of CDI was significantly higher in patients prescribed a PPI (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.52-3.23; P=0.0001). A strong association was found between concurrent PPI use with fluoroquinolones (P=0.005) and clindamycin (P=0.045).
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A retrospective review of clinic records over a 3 year period identified patients treated with a single 400 mg dose of cefixime for gonorrhea during pregnancy. Side effects and subsequent gonococcal carriage were noted.
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Sixteen patients out of the 19 given cefixime recovered vs. 14 out of the 17 given amoxycillin-clavulanate with no significant difference between both groups. Bacteria were more often susceptible to cefixime (100% of cases) than to amoxycillin-clavulanate (69%) (p < or = 0.0001). Safety was good and comparable in both groups.
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Ceftibuten, compared to cefixime, cefetamet, cefpodoxime, loracarbef, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefaclor, and cefadroxil, was the most active oral cephalosporin derivative against Enterobacteriaceae producing plasmid-encoded broad spectrum beta-lactamases. In a pharmacodynamic model, ceftibuten was bactericidal for Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae at concentrations simulating human serum levels following 200 mg, p.o., b.i.d.
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The observations underscore the need for broader susceptibility surveillance studies to elucidate the pattern and extent of drug resistance in Mozambique. A review of the current treatment guidelines for genital discharge syndrome is warranted.
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The enterohepatic circulation and biliary excretion of cefixime during continuous infusion were evaluated in rats based on the recirculatory concept. The Laplace-transformed equations for the enterohepatic circulation according to this concept were derived by means of the combination of transfer function. The transformed equations were simultaneously fitted to the time courses of plasma concentration in rats with laparotomy and with bile duct cannula by means of a nonlinear regression program, MULTI(FILT), into which the fast inverse Laplace transform was incorporated. The optimum model was selected on the basis of Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The time course of drug accumulation in the bile during infusion starts with a relatively gentle slope and finally approaches the asymptote with a constant slope. The kinetic significance of this asymptote was explained using the time courses of the cumulative amount excreted into the bile of rats with bile duct cannulation. The local moment characteristics for a single pass through enterohepatic circulation were further calculated from the time courses of both the plasma concentration and the excreted amount into the bile. The recovery ratio (Fc) and the mean circulatory time (tc) through a single pass of enterohepatic circulation were estimated to be 31.1% and 0.925 h, respectively. The recovery ratio (Fa) and the mean transit time (ta) for the complicated process from the access to the bile duct into the systemic circulation such as transport through the bile duct, absorption from the intestinal tract, and transit through the portal system were 76.4% and 0.0231 h, respectively. The recovery ratio (Fb) and the mean transit time (tb) for the disposition process through the systemic circulation into the bile were 40.7% and 0.902 h, respectively.
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The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including gonorrhea, is affected by the duration of infection. Oral antibiotic therapy for gonococcal infection has been shown to be as effective as conventional intramuscular injection with ceftriaxone. Rapid cure would be expected to limit further spread of gonorrhea. However, the speed with which Neisseria gonorrhoeae is eliminated from the urogenital tract has not been evaluated.