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The proportion of drug resistant isolates has increased since the 1970s. All drugs currently used for the treatment of Salmonellosis but ciprofloxacin are not reliable for an empirical therapy. Alternative drugs should be included in the essential drug list and measures should be taken to re-enforce the drug use policy.
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Cationic lipids have been successfully employed as vectors for gene transfer in lung grafts, yet those lipid vectors have potential toxicity. Furthermore, the optimal concentration of cationic lipids for gene transfection to lung grafts has not been determined. We evaluated liposome concentration/toxicity relationships in an in vivo rat lung transplantation model.
In 2013-2014, 201 pigs belonging to 67 batches were tested for Salmonella in their mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in one abattoir of Northern Italy. For each batch, faecal material was collected at lairage by swabbing the pen floor for approximately 1600 cm(2). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in MLN of pigs at slaughter, to assess Salmonella contamination at lairage and to evaluate the effect of lairage duration on its prevalence. Serotyping, XbaI PFGE typing and antimicrobial testing of the isolates were performed. Pig and human Salmonella isolates of the same region of Italy were compared to evaluate possible correlations. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 19.9% of the MLN and 49.3% of the environmental faecal samples. Nine different serovars were identified among 75 S. enterica isolates. In MLN Salmonella Derby was the most common (52.5%), followed by S. enterica 4,,12:i:- (17.5%) and Salmonella Rissen (10.0%). In faecal samples S. Derby was prevalent (51.4%), followed by S. enterica 4,, 12:i:- (20.0%) and Salmonella Brandenburg (14.3%). Lairage holding varied between 1 and ≥ 12 h (median value: 2.5h). In pigs held for 1-3h, 14.1% were positive for Salmonella in MLN but the prevalence reached 31.8% when they were held for ≥ 12 h. The contamination of MLN was statistically different (p=0.0045) between the two groups, thus confirming the role of long-lasting lairage in Salmonella contamination of pigs. XbaI PFGE typing detected 36 PFGE types. Twenty-three PFGE types were identified among the 40 MLN isolates and 22 PFGE types among the 35 faecal isolates. A total of 11 PFGE types were shared between the MLN of pigs and the lairage environment. Among S. Derby, 6 shared PFGE types between MLN and faeces were found and among S. enterica 4,,12:i:- one PFGE type was common between MLN and the faecal samples. Shared profiles between human and swine isolates of S. Derby, S. enterica 4,,12:i:-, S. Rissen, Salmonella Manhattan, S. Brandenburg, Salmonella Livingstone, Salmonella London and Salmonella Muenchen were identified. Among S. Derby and S. enterica 4,,12:i:- isolates found in pigs, 6/15 profiles (40.0%) and 8/10 (80.0%) were shared with human isolates. High resistance rates to streptomycin (97.3%), sulphonamide compounds (84.0%) and tetracycline (56.0%) were observed. No resistance was detected to ertapenem and meropenem. High proportions of isolates showed intermediate sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (85.3%) and cefotaxime (66.7%). High sensitivity rates were found to chloramphenicol (96.0%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (81.3%).
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Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics to handle serious infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. The incidence of resistance to these antibiotics has been increasing and new resistance mechanisms have emerged. The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in the environment has been overlooked. The main goal of this research was to assess the prevalence and diversity of carbapenem-resistant bacteria in riverine ecosystems. The presence of frequently reported carbapenemase-encoding genes was inspected. The proportion of imipenem-resistant bacteria was on average 2.24 CFU/ml. Imipenem-resistant strains (n=110) were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium haemolyticum, Shewanella xiamenensis, and members of Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria were highly resistant to other beta-lactams such as quinolones, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Carbapenem resistance was mostly associated with intrinsically resistant bacteria. As intrinsic resistance mechanisms, we have identified the blaCphA gene in 77.3% of Aeromonas spp., blaL1 in all S. maltophilia, and blaOXA-48-like in all S. xiamenensis. As acquired resistance mechanisms, we have detected the blaVIM-2 gene in six Pseudomonas spp. (5.45%). Integrons with gene cassettes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aacA and aacC genes), trimethoprim (dfrB1b), and carbapenems (blaVIM-2) were found in Pseudomonas spp. Results suggest that carbapenem resistance dissemination in riverine ecosystems is still at an early stage. Nevertheless, monitoring these aquatic compartments for the presence of resistance genes and its host organisms is essential to outline strategies to minimize resistance dissemination.
The data were from 137 children (< or =14 years old) with psoriasis registered in two tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China between January 2000 and December 2008. They were retrospectively studied.
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Four (1.60%) of the 250 stool samples were positive for Aeromonas spp. Three (2.03%) of the isolates were recovered from diarrhoeal specimens and 1 (0.98%) from non-diarrhoeal (control) samples. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest numbers of isolates 3 (3.66%) were recovered from age group 0-10 years while age group 61-70 years yielded 1 (14.29%). All isolates were found to be Aeromonas hydrophilia. The isolates were all sensitive to tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and streptomycin but resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Other enteropathogens isolated were Shigella spp 5 (2.0%) and Salmonella spp 2 (0.8%).
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Insulin induces transcription of the hepatic apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) gene by increasing Sp1 binding to the promoter. To determine the effect of fatty acids on this process, HepG2 cells cotransfected with the plasmid pAI.474.CAT containing the full-length apo AI promoter and the Sp1-expressing plasmid, pCMV-Sp1, were studied. Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) activity (% acetylation) increased 1.98-fold in cells receiving the Sp1 expression construct relative to control cells (46.4% +/- 0.6% v 23.4% +/- 1.3%, P < .05). Treatment of cells with 3 saturated fatty acids, stearic, myristic, and palmitic acid, repressed the ability of exogenous Sp1 to induce apo AI reporter gene expression (15.2% +/- 1.7%, 22.5% +/- 0.3%, 22.9% +/- 0.1%, 23.5% +/- 0.8%, respectively, P < .05). Unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acid had no effect on Sp1-mediated induction of the apo AI promoter. In the presence of the trans fatty acids, CAT activity in the Sp1-transfected cells was similar to control cells (16.7% +/- 3.3%, 19.3% +/- 0.5%, and 21.0% +/- 2.1% acetylation in cells exposed to elaidic acid, linolelaidic, or linolenelaidic acid, respectively). In cells treated with an equimolar mixture of oleic acid and stearic acid, apo AI promoter activity was suppressed in a manner similar to that observed in stearic acid-treated cells. Insulin (100 microU/mL) induced apo AI promoter activity 2.9-fold (22.4% +/- 1.7% v 7.8% +/- 2.4%, P < .05). However, in the presence of stearic acid, insulin was unable to induce apo AI promoter (6.3% +/- 1.6%). Stearic acid treatment did not alter Sp1-DNA binding as measured by gel shift analysis. Therefore, saturated fatty acids blunt Sp1 induction of apo AI promoter probably at a step beyond DNA binding.
All peptides were synthesized by the solid phase method developed using Fmoc chemistry on a peptide synthesizer. The binding of galactosylated peptides to HepG2 cells and accessibility of the galactose residues on particle surface was demonstrated by a competition assay using 125I-labeled asialoorosomucoid and RCA lectin agglutination assay, respectively. DNA plasmid encoding chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene was complexed with a tri-galactosylated peptide (GM245.3) or tri-galactosylated lipopeptide (GM246.3) in the presence of an endosomolytic peptide (GM225.1) or endosomolytic lipopeptide (GM227.3) to obtain DNA particles of 100-150 nm in size. The plasmid/peptide complexes were added to HepG2 cell cultures or intravenously administered by tail vein injection into normal mice or rats. Plasmid uptake and expression was quantified by qPCR and ELISA, respectively.
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Sequence of vanA cassette of CP2 showed partial homology with vancomycin resistant enterococci, VRSA vanA cassette element recorded in gene bank NCBI.
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Eight hundred and ninety-eight strains of H. influenzae isolated from randomly selected pediatric out-patients in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou 2000 approximately 2002 underwent determination of antibiotic susceptibility by E test MIC method for beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and cefaclor) and KB disc diffusion method for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP), azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin.
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A new insertion element of 1,449 bp with 25-bp perfect terminal repeats, designated IS1409, was identified in the chromosome of 4-chlorobenzoate-degrading Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. Upon insertion, IS1409 causes a target duplication of 8 bp. IS1409 carries only a single open reading frame of 435 codons encoding the transposase TnpA. Both TnpA and the overall organization of IS1409 are highly similar to those of some related insertion elements of the ISL3 group (J. Mahillon and M. Chandler, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:725--774, 1998). IS1409 was also found in other 4-chlorobenzoate-degrading Arthrobacter strains and Micrococcus luteus. Based on IS1409, a series of transposons carrying resistance genes for chloramphenicol and gentamicin were constructed. These transposons were used to demonstrate transposition events in vivo and to mutagenize Arthrobacter sp. strains.