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The efficacy of erythromycin was assessed in the treatment of 14 children aged 4 to 13 years with refractory chronic constipation, and presenting megarectum and fecal impaction. A double-blind, placebo- controlled, crossover study was conducted at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital. The patients were randomized to receive placebo for 4 weeks followed by erythromycin estolate, 20 mg kg-1 day-1, divided into four oral doses for another 4 weeks, or vice versa. Patient outcome was assessed according to a clinical score from 12 (most severe clinical condition) to 0 (complete recovery). At enrollment in the study and on the occasion of follow-up medical visits at two-week intervals, patient score and laxative requirements were recorded. During the first 30 days, the mean SD clinical score for the erythromycin group (N = 6) decreased from 8.2+/-2.3 to 2.2+/-1.0 while the score for the placebo group (N = 8) decreased from 7.8+/-2.1 to 2.9+/-2.8. During the second crossover phase, the score for patients on erythromycin ranged from 2.9+/-2.8 to 2.4+/-2.1 and the score for the patients on placebo worsened from 2.2+/-1.0 to 4.3+/-2.3. There was a significant improvement in score when patients were on erythromycin (P < 0.01). Mean laxative requirement was lower when patients ingested erythromycin (P < 0.05). No erythromycin-related side effects occurred. Erythromycin was useful in this group of severely constipated children. A larger trial is needed to fully ascertain the prokinetic efficacy of this drug as an adjunct in the treatment of severe constipation in children.
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Two patients experienced hepatotoxicity associated with erythromycin estolate (Ilosone) usage, followed 13 and 15 years later by an hepatotoxic reaction with administration of erythromycin ethylsuccinate (E.E.S.). These cases provide further evidence for erythromycin ethylsuccinate-associated hepatotoxicity and demonstrate erythromycin cross-sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both estolate and ethylsuccinate preparations of erythromycin stimulates speculation regarding the potentially hepatotoxic moiety of the erythromycin molecule. Furthermore, these cases suggest that all erythromycin preparations should be avoided or used only with careful monitoring in patients with previous erythromycin-associated liver injury.
ilosone eritromicina 250 mg
Penicillin V, benzathine/procaine penicillin G, cefadroxil monohydrate, and erythromycin estolate were randomly assigned for therapy of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in 198 children. All patients improved with in 24 hours of initiating therapy. Reinfection with a new group A streptococcal serotype occurred in 13 patients, 12 developing 7 to 12 days after stopping therapy and 11 becoming symptomatic. Relapse with the same organism occurred in 16 patients, only 5 (31%) of whom were symptomatic. Antibody titer rises, antibiotic resistance of group A organisms, presence of penicillinase-producing staphylococci, and lack of compliance were not related to recurrent infections. There were no significant differences between the failure rates of the four test drugs: penicillin V, 12%; benzathine/procaine penicillin G, 12%; cefadroxil monohydrate, 5%; and erythromycin, 2%.
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A chronic Rhodococcus equi metaphysitis involving the distal growth plate of the left third metatarsal bone had induced a longstanding lameness in a young foal. Abnormal hematologic values included mild anemia, hyperfibrinogemia, mild leukocytosis, and neutrophilia. Radiography of the distal portion of MT3 revealed a radiolucent zone on the medial aspect of the growth plate, and small pieces of bone suggestive of sequestra. Treatment with erythromycin estolate and rifampin, aggressive surgical debridement, and cancellous bone grafting helped resolve the bone infection.
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The MIC(50/90) (mg/L) and MPC(50/90) (mg/L), respectively, were as follows: azithromycin 0.13/0.25 and 1/4; clarithromycin 0.031/0.063 and 0.13/0.5; erythromycin 0.063/0.13 and 0.25/2. We calculated from published pharmacokinetic values that the AUC(24)/MPC(90) for azithromycin was 0.85; for clarithromycin it was 96, and for erythromycin base and estolate it was 4 and 10, respectively. Thus the AUC(24)/MPC(90) was about 50 times higher for clarithromycin than for azithromycin.
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During a 1-yr period an increased incidence of hypertrophic PS was noted in a closed referral population. These patients demonstrated a temporal relationship between the ingestion of EE and the development of PS. A sequence of events from pylorospasm to pyloric tumors was suggested from the data.
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Azithromycin used once daily for 5 days produced a satisfactory therapeutic outcome similar to those of amoxicillin/clavulanate or erythromycin given three times a day for 10 days for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Azithromycin had significantly fewer side effects than comparator drugs.
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Thirty-nine pregnant women admitted for therapeutic abortions during early or mid pregnancy were given erythromycin estolate, erythromycin base, or clindamycin hydrochloride orally in single or multiple doses. Peak serum levels of clindamycin were 3.4 to 9.0 mug/ml following a single dose of 450 mg, whereas peak serum levels of erythromycin were 0.29 to 7.2 mug/ml following 500 mg in a single dose. The individual variability of serum concentrations of erythromycin was greater than that reported in normal men and nonpregnant women, whereas the serum levels of clindamycin were rather uniform, and similar to what has been reported in nonpregnant individuals. Following multiple doses of each antibiotic, high serum levels were obtained in virtually all subjects, and urine levels were also higher. Following single doses the mean urinary recovery was 2% for erythromycin and 16.8% for clindamycin.
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Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to study the effects of the flavonoids diosmin and its main metabolite diosmetin on the cell membrane damage caused by erythromycin estolate (EE) and oxidative stress caused by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP). The damage was evaluated by the leakage of intracellular enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate-aminotransferase and the residual cell content of a lysosomal marker acid phosphatase (AP). After treating the cells for 40 h with diosmetin EE induced less enzyme leakage. The content of AP was kept higher by diosmetin pretreatment after 6 h exposure to EE. Diosmin at the same concentrations had barely any effect. Diosmetin, but not diosmin, also protected against TBHP toxicity and this was related to lower lipid peroxidation and higher glutathione content caused by pretreatment with the flavonoid. When the cells were treated simultaneously with TBHP and diosmetin after 21 h of culture, the protection by the flavonoid was even higher. In fact the antioxidant activity of diosmetin was considerably greater than that of diosmin. After 40 h exposure to both flavonoids diosmin but not diosmetin was detectable in the cell membrane fraction, suggesting that the latter's protective effect is associated with its metabolites.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.