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A retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug data collection form available under Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI).
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A total of 320 isolates were tested. Between 1990 and 2006 all tested samples were susceptible to both cephalosporins. Subsequently, the prevalence of elevated MICs for cefixime increased to 10.4% (2007/2008), 11.5% (2009/2010), and 11.4% (2011/2012); and for ceftriaxone to 2.4% (2007/2008), 4.7% (2009/2010), and 0% (2011/2012), respectively. The prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (72.7%) and penicillin (22.7%) was high in 2011/2012.
The bacterial strains isolated from 565 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2003 and July 2004. The susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were investigated. Of them, 701 strains were estimated as prophlogistic bacteria and used for the investigation. The strains consisted of 258 Gram-positive bacterial strains (36.8%) and 443 Gram-negative bacterial strains (63.2%). Against Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin (VCM) showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 2 microg/mL. Against Streptococcus agalactiae, ampicillin (ABPC), cefozopran (CZOP), imipenem (IPM), and clarithromycin (CAM) showed a strong activity and the MIC90 was 0.125 microg/mL or less. Against Enterococcus faecalis, VCM, ABPC, and IPM showed a strong antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of cephems to Escherichia coli was generally good, and especially CZOP and cefpirome (CPR) showed the strongest activity (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). Quinolone resistant E. coli [MIC of ciprofloxacin (CPFX): > or =4 microg/mL] was detected at frequency of 15.7%, which was higher than that in the last year. Against Klebsiella pneumoniae, meropenem (MEPM) showed the strongest activity and next, the antibacterial activity of CRMN and CZOP was good. The antibacterial activity of the other cephems, however, significantly decreased, compared with that evaluated in last year. Against Serratia marcescens, MEPM had the strongest antibacterial activity. Against Proteus mirabilis, MEPM and CRMN showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 0.125 microg/mL or less. Nest, cefmenoxime (CMX), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefixime (CFIX), cefpodoxime (CPDX), CPR, CZOP, and cefditoren (CDTR) showed a strong activity. The antibacterial activity of the drugs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was generally low, and MIC90 of all the drugs was ranged from 32 to < or = 256 microg/mL except IPM and amikacin (AMK) having 16 microg/mL. The antibacterial activity of CZOP was relatively good (MIC50: 2 microg/mL).
To ascertain recommendations for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) following the emergence of "cephalosporin-resistant" Neisseria gonorrhoeae and to relate these to clinical and laboratory measures directed towards disease and antibiotic resistance control. WHO WPR Gonococcal Antimicrobial Resistance Programme members provided data on the type, dose and source of third-generation cephalosporins recommended for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Ceftriaxone was recommended more widely (11/15 respondents) than cefixime (five centres). No cephalosporins were recommended in three jurisdictions. One other oral (ceftibuten) and injectable (cefodizime) agent was recommended. Uniform (400 mg) doses of cefixime were recommended but ceftriaxone regimens ranged between 125 mg and 1 g, with nine of 11 respondents using a 250 mg dose. Both generic and proprietary preparations were widely used. Third-generation cephalosporins are widely recommended for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the WPR, with injectable ceftriaxone more extensively so than oral cefixime and in an expanded dose range. Few other cephalosporins were recommended. Current knowledge suggests that the trend towards ceftriaxone treatment in higher doses may decrease the impact of the circulation of "cephalosporin-resistant" gonococci in the WPR. These recommendations represent public sector practice only and of themselves are unlikely to contain the further spread of "cephalosporin-resistant" gonococci because of the general clinical use of cephalosporins. Optimisation of strategies for laboratory detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance can be simplified in the WPR because of the restricted spectrum of cephalosporins recommended. Additional efforts are urgently required for both disease and antibiotic resistance control in gonorrhoea.
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Despite rapidly diminishing treatment options for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance worldwide, Norwegian guidelines still recommend ciprofloxacin as empirical treatment for gonorrhea. The present study aimed to characterize phenotypical and genotypical properties of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Norway in 2009. All viable N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 114) from six university hospitals in Norway (2009) were collected, representing 42% of all notified gonorrhea cases. Epidemiological data were collected from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and linked to phenotypical and genotypical characteristics for each N. gonorrhoeae isolate. Resistance levels to the antimicrobials examined were: ciprofloxacin 78%, azithromycin 11%, cefixime 3.5%, ceftriaxone 1.8%, and spectinomycin 0%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin varied from 1.5 to 8 mg/L. Forty-one (36%) of the isolates were β-lactamase-producing, 17 displayed penA mosaic alleles, and 72 different N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (ST; 37 novel) were identified. The most common ST was ST1407 (n = 11), containing penA mosaic allele. Four of these isolates displayed intermediate susceptibility/resistance to cefixime. The N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in Norway were highly diverse. The level of ciprofloxacin resistance was high and the Norwegian management guidelines should promptly exclude ciprofloxacin as an empirical treatment option for gonorrhea.
This study was conducted with the aim to identify the most feasible and cost-effective method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
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One hundred forty-seven N. gonorrhoeae isolates were characterized. All isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (minimum inhibitory concentration, >or=16.0 microg/mL): 117 (79.1%) were beta-lactamase-positive (PP-TR), 3 (2.0%) exhibited chromosomally mediated resistance to penicillin (PenR-TRNG), and 27 (18.2%) were susceptible to penicillin (TRNG). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin; lack of interpretive criteria do not allow interpretation of susceptibilities of cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, or azithromycin. Fifty-nine (40.1%) isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant; 35 (59.3%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates exhibited high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin (Cip-HLR; minimum inhibitory concentration, >or=4.0 microg/mL of ciprofloxacin). Three (2.0%) isolates were intermediate to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-two strain types were identified among these isolates; small clusters were identified with 3 strain types.
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To characterise comprehensively the antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Arkhangelsk, Russia, and to investigate whether the recommended treatment guidelines are updated and effective.
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The number of biopsy cores and prebiopsy rectal preparation use were statistically significant risk factors for infectious complications after prostate biopsy in our study. Thus, we recommend a rectal preparation before prostate biopsy to minimize the risk of infectious complications.
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Of 175 K. oxytoca isolates, 143 were ESBL positive and 117 were fluoroquinolone resistant. Of 270 K. pneumoniae isolates, 200 were ESBL positive and 195 were independently fluoroquinolone resistant. The HA samples yielded more isolates than the community acquired (CA) samples for each species. The K. oxytoca strains were resistant to cefepime, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and imipenem, whereas the K. pneumoniae strains were highly resistant to ampicillin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxyclav, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefixime, piperacillin and imipenem. The ESBL-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant K. pneumoniae strains were more prevalent than the K. oxytoca strains in the HA/CA samples. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the third-generation cephalosporins: cefotaxime and ceftazidime and the fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against both species of Klebsiella confirmed the resistance in the current/coveted treatment options.