In 2011, new guidelines on antibiotic prescription for acute otitis media (AOM) were published in France to decrease the use of third generation cephalosporins that promote the carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli. Our objective was to assess the impact of the 2011 French recommendations on the type of antibiotics prescribed for AOM.
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Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, were determined for eight noninfected patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and eight healthy volunteers. Subjects were matched for sex, age (+/- 6 years), and body weight (+/- 10 kg, except for one pair) and received a single 200-mg (cefpodoxime equivalents) oral dose of the prodrug cefpodoxime proxetil in an open-label, paired-design fashion. Dialysate (CAPD group only), plasma, and urine samples were collected and assayed for cefpodoxime by a microbiologic method. In addition, mean bactericidal titers of the effluent dialysate against selected bacterial strains often associated with CAPD-related peritonitis were determined at 6 and 24 h after the dose. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all pharmacokinetic parameters between healthy and CAPD subjects, except for lag time to absorption. The mean peak plasma cefpodoxime concentration of 1.88 +/- 0.6 micrograms/ml occurred at 2.44 +/- 0.5 h for healthy volunteers, while the peak concentration of 3.25 +/- 1.4 micrograms/ml occurred at 12.0 +/- 4.2 h for patients on CAPD. The average elimination half-life in CAPD patients was approximately 12 times greater than that seen in healthy volunteers. Peritoneal dialysis had a minimal effect on cefpodoxime clearance. In healthy volunteers, 24.2% +/- 13% of the dose was recovered from the urine, in contrast to only 5.59% +/- 6.9% for CAPD patients. The mean bactericidal titers for all CAPD patients, at 6 and 24 h, were mostly less than 1:2 and did not exceed 1:4 for any of the isolates. Because of the decreased renal clearance and negligible dialysate clearance of cefpodoxime, and delayed drug absorption, the dosage interval for cefpodoxime proxetil may need to be extended in CAPD patients.
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Pharmacist intervention and cefpodoxime step-down therapy were associated with decreased overall antibiotic costs in our intravenous-to-oral program.
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Cefpodoxime is a semi-synthetic, third generation cephalosporin. The drug is available for use as a prodrug-Cefpodoxime proxetil, which is absorbed readily from the gut. It reaches adequate levels exceeding the MIC in most of the body fluids. It is excreted by kidneys, unchanged. Dose needs adjustment in compromised renal function. The drug is active against common gram-positive cocci like staphylococci including penicillinase producing strains, streptococci and gram negative bacteria like Hemophilus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Moraxella, Meningococci, Gonococci etc. The drug is useful in common upper and lower respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, and otitis media. The drug is also used in skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection and respiratory tract infection. Cefpodoxime is being used as a step down from parenteral cephalosporin. The recommended dose is 8-10 mg/kg/d in a single or two doses. Different schedules have been given for different infections. The drug is safe, effective as a short course (5 vs. 10 days). With a low incidence of side effects, and twice a day dosing, it proves to be a useful drug.
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Patients were given 250 mg of ciprofloxacin orally twice daily for 3 days or 100 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil orally twice daily for 3 days.
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The effects of alteration of gastric pH and food on the pharmacokinetics of 200 mg doses of cefpodoxime proxetil tablets were studied in two separate randomized, open label, crossover studies in healthy subjects. In the pH study (n = 17 subjects), there was a lead-in period done under fasting conditions, followed by randomization to a four-way crossover of pentagastrin (6 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously), ranitidine (150 mg orally, 10 and 2 hours before dosing with the antibiotic), sodium bicarbonate (12.6 gm), or aluminum hydroxide (120 cc). Gastric pH was determined by nasogastric aspirates before and 10 minutes after the intervention, just before the antibiotic was given. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were highest in fasting and pentagastrin periods and were 35% to 50% lower for all of the other periods (p less than 0.0001). Gastric pH and Cmax and AUC were inversely related (r = 0.66 and r = 0.62; p less than 0.0001 for both). In the food study (n = 16 subjects), there were two lead-in periods, one done while subjects were fasting and one while they were normal diet, followed by randomization to a four-way crossover of either high or low protein diets, or high or low fat diets. There were six meals in each diet. Dosing with the antibiotic was done at the midpoint of the fourth meal. Cmax and AUC were 22% to 34% higher for all diets than for the fasting period (p less than 0.0001), whereas the time to Cmax was unchanged. These studies demonstrated that absorption of cefpodoxime proxetil is best at low gastric pH or in the presence of food, which suggests that the role of gastrointestinal function on the pharmacokinetic profile is complex.
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We diagnosed a 41-year-old female patient to be suffering from Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) by using PCR and culture methods. She had a prolonged dry cough and slight fever. Her chest roentgenogram showed a segmental infiltration in the middle of the right lung field. We treated her with 400 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) per day. On the 4th day after beginning the treatment with CPDX-PR, she still complained of a productive cough. We changed the treatment by using 300 mg of roxithromycin per day and these symptoms disappeared. To diagnose C. pneumoniae early, PCR, MIF and culture methods are very useful diagnostic tools.
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Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is a common reason for healthcare visits, and one of the more common reasons for the use of antibiotics. In an effort to improve the diagnosis and appropriate therapy of ABRS, several guidelines have been developed. Current guidelines recommend extended-spectrum cephalosporins as one of the first-line options for the treatment of this condition. In addition, most cephalosporins recommended by recent guidelines (e.g. cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefdinir) are unlikely to be associated with cross-reactivity with penicillins, and may be considered effective alternatives to amoxicillin in adults who are allergic to penicillin.
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A total of 260 children, 3 months to 11 years old (median age 24 months), with acute otitis media (AOM) received either cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) 8 mg/kg/d b.i.d. or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (ACA) 40/10 mg/kg/d t.i.d. for 8 days. A significant difference in clinical cure rates was observed between the CP group 71/118 (60%) and the ACA group 42/105 (40%), p = 0.003. At the follow-up visit (20-30 days after the start of treatment), significant advantages were recorded with the CP vs. ACA therapy, in terms of satisfactory clinical response [90/111 (81%) vs 60/94 (63.8%), p = 0.005] residual middle ear effusion (14.4% vs 28.7%, p = 0.01) and normal tympanometry (78% vs 61.4%, p = 0.017). Compliance and adverse event frequency were the same in both treatment groups. The higher clinical cure rate and equivalent safety profile of CP indicates that it is an acceptable alternative to ACA for the treatment of AOM in children.
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Analysis of the mean acceptability/ preference rating from 769 children demonstrated that the flavor of azithromycin was rated significantly higher than that of cefpodoxime (4.3 vs. 2.8), cefprozil (4.0 vs. 3.4) and clarithromycin (4.3 vs. 2.7) and was comparable to that of cefixime (4.0 vs. 4.2) and loracarbef (4.4 vs. 4.5). A greater percentage of children preferred the taste of azithromycin to that of cefpodoxime (90.0% vs. 5.2%), cefprozil (63.0% vs. 33.1%) and clarithromycin (89.0% vs. 11.0%). The taste of azithromycin was not preferred to that of cefixime (39.0% vs. 53.9%) or loracarbef (36% vs. 58.5%).
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To define the optimal approach for treating acute cystitis in young healthy women and in women with diabetes and men and to define the optimal approach for diagnosing acute cystitis in the outpatient setting.